INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND UNEXPLAINED GENDER WAGE GAPS: EVIDENCE FOR AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN BOLIVIA

Oscar Jorge Molina Tejerina, Sergio Bobka Calcina

Resumen


The present investigation has the objective of showing evidence that there would be a reduction on wage differences between men and women in agriculture if they participate in international trade. The methodology that will be used is based on Molina[Mol10], who used Becker [Bec71] as a knowledge base for his study. This methodology consists on showing that wage difference occurs because of a taste for discrimination. This means that companies are willing to pay a higher salary to men just because they want to. But because international trade brings new competence to the markets, local companies need to be more competitive to survive. Therefore they wouldn’t be able to pay higher wages to men; this would reduce the wage difference by gender. Agriculture shows a different behavior from other sectors due to the strong agricultural subsidies governments give, De la Dehesa[Del03]. Using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition an estimate wage can be found for both men and women in tradable and non-tradable sectors of agriculture. At the same time two components will be found, one of them shows the difference produced by factors that affect the productivity of an individual. The second component shows the difference that cannot be explained, this is where discrimination is shown. Once these results are found they will be compared to find out if they are different in tradable and non-tradable sectors. The results that have been found show consistency with Molina’s study for the year 2002. Agriculture shows a behavioral difference from other economic sectors and different from Becker’s idea. As there is no unexplained wage difference by gender between tradable and non-tradable sectors. The results show that the difference is that these two sectors are the same. Thus international trade doesn’t result in a reduction of inequality in agriculture.

Palabras clave


Wage Gap, Agriculture, International Trade

Texto completo:

ABSTRACT RESUMEN FULL ARTICLE

Referencias


O. Molina, Comercio Internacional y Diferencias Salariales en Bolivia, 2010.

G. Becker, The Economics of Discrimination, Chicago: Chicago Press, 1971.

G. De la Dehesa, Globalización, desigualdad y pobreza, Alianza, 2003.

M. Spence and R. Solow, The Growth Report: Strategies for Sustained Growth and Inclusive Development, Commission of Growth and Development, 2008.

M. Ransom and V. Lambson, Monopsony, Mobility and Sex Differences in Pay: Missouri School Teachers, American Economic Review, 2011.

S. Black and E. Brainerd, Importing Equality? The Impact of Globalization on Gender Discrimination, 2002.

M. Ransom and R. Oaxaca, Sex Differences in Pay in a "Nex Monopsony" Moder of the Labor Market, Institute for the Study of Labor, 2005.

O. Molina, International Trade and Non Explained Wage Differences: Cross sectional evidence by gente, 2013.

G. Becker, A Theory of the Allocation of Time, Royal Economic Society, 1965.

J. Pencavel, Labor Supply of Men: A Survey, Elsevier Science Publishers, 1986.

H. Varian, Microeconomía Intermedia, 2005.

G. Borjas, Labor Economics, McGraw Hill, 2013.

J. Mincer, Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1974.

P. Carneiro and J. Heckman, Human Capital Policy, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2003.

P. Manzini and D. Snower, Wage Determination and the Sources of Bargaining Power, London, 2005.

K. Kofi and J. Guryan, Prejudice and the Economics of Discrimination, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2007.

A. Newell and B. Reilly, The Gender Pay Gap in the Transition from Communism: Some Empirical Evidence, 2001.

J. Hellerstein, D. Neumark and K. Troske, Market Forces and Sex Discrimination, National Bureau of Economics Research, 1997.

N. Al-Rhodan and G. Stoudmann, Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition, Geneva Centre for Security Policy, 2006.

J. Frankel, Globalization of the Economy, National Bureau of Economics Research, 2000.

J. Stiglitz, Globalization and its Discontents, W.W. Norton & Company, 2002.

E. Aisbett, Why are the Critics so Convinced that Globalization is Bad for the Poor?, National Bureau of Economics Research, 2005.

J. Bhagwatti and T. Srinivasan, Trade and Poverty in the Poor Countries, 2001.

M. McMillan and D. Rodrik, Globalization, Structural Change and Productivity, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2011.

R. Barro and X. Sala-i-Martin, Technological Diffusion Convergence and Growth, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1995.

P. Romer, Two Strategies of Economic Development: Using Ideas and Producing Ideas, World Bank, 1995.

S. Kuznets, Economics Growth and Income Inequality, 1955.

K. Bonesmo, Income Inequality in the European Union, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2012.

P. Lloyd, J. Croser and K. Anderson, Global Distorsions to Agricultural Markets, The World Development Bank Research Group, 2009.

S. McCorriston, Why should Imperfect Competition Matter to Agricultural Economists?, Oxford Journals, 2002.

D. Saxowsky, "North Dakota State University," Septiembre 2010. [Online]. Available: https://www.ndsu.edy/pubweb/-saxowsky/frm&agbusmgt/ref_topics/PICompetition.htm.. [Accessed Noviembre 2015].

M. Verpoorten, Imperfect Markets: A Case Study in Senegal, Center of Economic studies of Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 2001.

K. Anderson and A. Valdés, Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Latin America, 2007.

S. Black and P. Strahan, The Division of Spoils: Rent-Sharing and Discrimination in a Regulated Industry, American Economic Association, 2001.

United Nations Development Fund For Women, El Impacto del TLC en la Mano de Obra Femenina en México, 1998.

S. Joekes and A. Weston, Women & the New Trade Agenda, The Stata Journal, 2008.

R. Mehra and S. Gammage, Trends, Countertrends and Gaps in Women's Employment, 1999.

M. Fontana, The Gender Effects of Trade Liberalisation in Developing Countries: A Review of the Literature, University of Sussex, 2003.

J. Von Braun and K. Eileen, Agricultural Commercialization Economic Development and Nutrition, 1994.

C. Newman, Gender, Time Use and Change: Impacts of Agricultural Export Employment in Ecuador, The World Bank, 2001.

E. Yáñez, La Oferta y la Demanda de Trabajo en Bolivia: Una Revisión Empírica, 2004.

D. Contreras and e. al., The Role of Social Networks in the Economic Opportunities of Bolivian Women, 2007.

O. Molina, Bolivia: Más allá de la desigualdad en la distribución del ingreso, La Paz: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 2016.

D. Lind and R. Mason, Estadística para Administración y Economía, Alfaomega Grupo Editor, 2004.

R. Oaxaca and R. Michael, On Discrimination and the Decomposition of Wage Differentials, 1994.

R. Oaxaca, Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Market, International Economic Review, 1973.

R. Oaxaca and M. Ransom, Identification in Detailed Wage Decompositions, : The Review of Economics and Statistics, 1999.

A. Blinder, Income Inequality in the European Union, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2012.

J. Vincéns, Descomposición Oaxaca-Blinder en Modelos Lineales y No Lineales, Instituto L.R.Klein-Centro Gauss, 2012.

B. Jann, The Blinder-Oaxaca Decomposition for Linear Regression Models, The Stata Journal, 2008.

F. Jones and J. Kelley, Decomposing Differences Between Groups: A Cautionary Note on Measuring Discrimination, Sociological Methods & Research, 1984.

T. Daymont and P. Andrisani, Job Preferencias, College Major and the Gender Gap in Earnings, University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

J. Heckman, Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error, Econometrica, 1979.

A. Blinder, Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates, The Journal of Human Resources, 1973.

L. Andersen and O. Molina, Análisis Estadístico y Económico Sobre las Características de la Permanencia y Acceso Diferenciado por Género en el Sistema Educativo Boliviano a Nivel Municipal, INESAD, 2004.

L. Andersen, A. Mercado and B. Muriel, Discriminación Étnica en Bolivia: En el Sistema Educativo y el Mercado de Trabajo, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas, Universidad Católica Boliviana, 2003.

G. Psacharopoulos, Ethnicity, Education and Earnings in Bolivia Guatemala, The World Bank, 1992.

O. Molina and F. Soria, Factores Determinantes de la Probabilidad de Afiliación al Sistema de Pensiones en Bolivia, Investigación y Desarrollo, 2006.

T. Mroz, The Sensitivity of an Empirical Model of Married Women's Hours of Work to Economics and Statistical Assumptions, Econometrica, 1987.

H. Winsborough and P. Dickinson, Components of Negro-White Income Differences, Wisconsin: Center for Demography and Ecology: University of Wisconsin, 1971.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


ESTADÍSTICAS DEL ARTICULO
Resumen : 576
ARCHIVO PDF ABSTRACT : 81
ARCHIVO PDF RESUMEN : 41
ARCHIVO PDF FULL ARTICLE : 334



Copyright (c) 2018 Revista Investigación & Desarrollo

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0 Internacional.